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Mathematics

Revolutionary theory of dark matter

Looking for dark matter. Professor Are Raklev has launched a mathematical model that explains what dark matter may consist of. (Credit: Yngve Vogt)

Jan. 24, 2013 — The universe abounds with dark matter. Nobody knows what it consists of. University of Oslo physicists have now come up with a mathematical explanation that could solve the mystery once and for all.

Astrophysicists have known for the last 80 years that most of the universe consists of an unknown, dark matter. The solution to the mystery may now be just around the corner.

"We are looking for a new member of our particle zoo in order to explain dark matter. We know that it is a very exotic beast. And we have found a plausible...

Physicists help show math behind growth of 'coffee rings'

Slightly stretched particles exhibited a rare Kardar-Parisi-Zhang growth process. (Credit: Art: Felice Macera)

Jan. 18, 2013 — Last year, a team of University of Pennsylvania physicists showed how to undo the "coffee-ring effect," a commonplace occurrence when drops of liquid with suspended particles dry, leaving a ring-shaped stain at the drop's edges. Now the team is exploring how those particles stack up as they reach the drop's edge, and they discovered that...

A mathematical study of the famous Dirac equation that describes particles

Naiara Arrizabalaga, PhD holder in mathematics, UPV/EHU. (Credit: Image courtesy of Elhuyar Fundazioa)

Jan. 7, 2013 — In 1928 the British physicist Paul Dirac put forward one of the fundamental equations that we use today to mathematically describe a spin one-half particle from a relativistic point of view. The mathematical representation that Dirac came up with enables certain particles, including the electron, to be better understood. Nevertheless, much more...

Basic math skills linked to PSAT math success

Jan. 4, 2013 — New research from Western University provides brain imaging evidence that students well-versed in very basic single digit arithmetic (5+2=7 or 7-3=4) are better equipped to score higher on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), an examination sat by millions of students in the United States each year in preparation for college admission tests.

In findings published January 4 in The Journal of Neuroscience research led by Daniel Ansari, Associate...

Math formula gives new glimpse into the magical mind of Ramanujan

Black hole illustration. Modern day mathematicians drew on modern mathematical tools that had not been developed before Ramanujan's death to prove that a mock modular form could be computed just as Ramanujan predicted. The result is a formula for mock modular forms that may prove useful to physicists who study black holes. (Credit: NASA, M. Weiss (Chandra X-Ray Center))

Dec. 17, 2012 — December 22 marks the 125th anniversary of the birth of Srinivasa Ramanujan, an...

Replacing fossil fuels: Utilizing sea wave to generate electricity

TechAndComputer (Nov. 30, 2012) — Researchers Dr Ismail, Dr Muhammad Murtadha and Baharin Abu Bakar from Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia have carried out a conceptual study on mathematical modelling for sea wave in electricity generation.

This conceptual study focused on using Oscillating Wave Column (OWC) which is considered as the most efficient way to utilize sea waves, the largest power source on earth, to generate electricity. Previous studies have revealed that global...

Preventing 'Cyber Pearl Harbor': Improving cyber attack detection through computer modeling

TechAndComputer (Nov. 30, 2012) — Cyber attacks that have long caused major work disruption and theft of private information are becoming more sophisticated with prolonged attacks perpetrated by organized groups. In September 2012, Bank of America, Citibank, the New York Stock Exchange, and other financial institutions were targets of attacks for more than five weeks. Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta warned that the United States was facing the possibility of a "cyber-Pearl...

Mathematics used to identify contamination in water distribution networks

TechAndComputer (Nov. 28, 2012) — None of us want to experience events like the Camelford water pollution incident in Cornwall, England, in the late eighties, or more recently, the Crestwood, Illinois, water contamination episode in 2009 where accidental pollution of drinking water led to heart-wrenching consequences to consumers, including brain damage, high cancer risk, and even death. In the case of such catastrophes, it is important to have a method to identify and curtail...

Outside a vacuum: Model predicts movement of charged particles in complex media

TechAndComputer (Nov. 28, 2012) — Picture two charged particles in a vacuum. Thanks to laws of elementary electrostatics, we can easily calculate the force these particles exert upon one another, and therefore predict their movements.

Submerge those particles in a simple medium -- say, water -- and the calculation grows more complex. The charged particles' movements influence the water, which in turn may slow, speed, or otherwise alter the particles' paths. In this environment a...